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  • Therefore evaluation of base substances of alkali


    Therefore, evaluation of RHPS4 substances of alkali-activated paste and alkali solution dosages have a remarkable impact on output products. Few research can be found in literature to assess GGBFS as a base materials of AAC. Even though less studies exists for serving RHA as base substance of AACs [22], [23], [25], the performance of GGBFS along with RHA has not been investigated so far. The current research investigates the mechanical, durability and microstructural of GGBFS-RHA AACs made by using different alkali activator dosages. The possibility of construction of an environmental-friendly and low cost concrete will be assessed in this study.
    Experimental program
    Results and discussion
    Conclusion This study aimed to reverse the serviceability of by-product and waste materials into construction materials. Geopolymerization was served to chemically activate the materials to be replaced the cement. Different monomer ratios were applied to the mixes to investigate the effect of activators on AAC. The following conclusions achieved from the results and observations which are listed below:
    Conflict of interests
    Acknowledgement This research was funded by the Babol Noshirvani University of Technology under the Grant No. BUT/388011/97.
    Introduction Al matrix composites (AMCs) play an important role in automobiles, structural and aerospace industries owing to their attributes such as low density, high strength-weight ratio and wear resistance in addition to relatively low fabrication cost [1], [2], [3]. The mechanical properties of metal matrix composite depend on fabrication technique, orientation as well as distribution of the reinforced particles. Various methods like mechanical alloying (MA), casting and powder metallurgy (PM) are used for their fabrication [4], [5], [6]. Amongst the different fabrication methods, process of powder metallurgy has attracted more attention due to the best possible reinforcement dispersion into the matrix along with the production of near net shaped products and a fair dimensional tolerance for the complex geometries [7], [8], [9]. In addition of above, powder metallurgy process is the relative low temperature processing technique as compared to melting process. Thus it avoids any possibility of occurring chemical reaction between the matrix and reinforcement. Further, powder metallurgy facilitates fabrication of composites with high reinforcement contents, which eventually improve its elastic and thermal behaviour [10], [11]. Typically ceramics like Al2O3, B4C etc. are used as reinforcements in the fabrication of particle based AMCs [12]. However, utilization of these synthetic reinforcement raises the cost of material. Further, synthetic reinforcements like SiC, Gr and Al2O3 are not produced across the globe in spite of their evident broad usage. In view of this, the agro and industrial waste reinforced AMCs have gathered a lot of concern recently from researchers because of economic cost and low weight materials [3], [13]. Though these agro and industrial waste are readily available and possess lower densities in comparison with other typical reinforcements, but they have fairly restricted usage on account of their poor mechanical and wear characteristics. Hence the utilization of these light weight and low cost agro-waste ashes along the high strength of synthetic reinforcements for the development of hybrid AMCs can attract attention of researchers for their characterizations and applications. RHA, an agro-waste, usually contains oxides of silicon, calcium and magnesium which possess high hardness and strength [14], [15], [16]. The present work is motivated by the potential advantages of producing high performance low cost AMCs by using RHA, an agricultural waste, as complementary reinforcement to SiC. Lot of previous researches are currently available for hybrid composites reinforced with combinations of synthetic reinforcement and agro/industrial wastes like fly ash (FA), rice husk ash (RHA), bamboo leaves ash (BLA) and red mud etc. Few of them are as follows; Verma et al. [17] investigated the mechanical behaviour of Al alloy-B4C -RHA composite and noticed that hardness, tensile strength & compression strength increased with increment in reinforcement content. Dinaharan et al. [18] had produced AA6061/18 vol.% RHA composite using friction stir processing and concluded that RHA improved the tensile strength. Gireesh et al. [19] prepared AMC using Aloe Vera powder through stir casting process. An improvement in hardness and ultimate tensile strength had been observed. Alaneme et al. [20] investigated the hardness, fracture toughness and tensile strength of SiC-RHA-Gr reinforced Zn–27Al based composite. RHA content improved the fracture toughness while lowered the hardness, tensile strength and yield strength. Shankar et al. [21] used Palmyra shell ash as reinforcement for aluminium alloy (AlSi10Mg) composites and observed better wear resistance and significant improvement in hardness. Shaikh et al. [22] fabricated AMCs using SiC and FA as reinforcement and concluded improved wear as well as hardness behaviour of Al/SiC/FA composite. Prasad et al. [23] investigated the damping capacity of A356.2/RHA/SiC composites and observed that the damping capacity improved with weight fraction of RHA. Senthilkumar et al. [24] investigated the sliding wear behaviour of RHA reinforced AlSi10Mg based composites through Taguchi technique. Results showed that RHA content highly influenced the wear and friction behaviour.