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  • br Materials and methods br Results and discussion br Discus


    Materials and methods
    Results and discussion
    Conclusions Islamic architectural design and construction combine various secular and religious styles that span the Islamic history. The bulk of Islamic architectural characteristics is visible in mosques, tombs, forts, and palaces, though the sars-cov of Islamic architecture can be best seen in the construction of mosques. The following conclusions can be drawn from this study concerning the analysis of the physico-chemical and microscopic properties of the masonry mortars from Alhambra Palace (Spain):
    Introduction Effectively organizing evacuation routes inside buildings, especially densely populated buildings such as theaters or schools, is always one of the most important aspects architects take into consideration during the design process. However, due to limited knowledge of human׳s behavior, architects usually create these evacuation designs from pure statistics instead of their practical usage. Therefore, as long as the critical statistics of the planning layout meet the demand of the construction codes, the planning scheme will be automatically identified as a qualified design by law. This type of static evaluation method can hardly tell the difference among all of the alternative designs in terms of safety, so it is unable to help us to select the most appropriate planning schemes for the building. Although some researchers would let people actually participate in evacuation tests and compare their results to determine which layouts could best facilitate building evacuation, this method cannot be considered good for evaluating performance. After all, exposing people to real emergency situations can be both time-consuming and dangerous; and applying such a complex research method in a small-scale design project is not very cost effective (Almeida et al., 2012; Camillen et al., 2009). Therefore, to quickly assess their safety performance, other controllable alternatives should be taken into consideration, among which simulation models are the most commonly used. As previous research shows, the main operational mechanisms in traditional simulation models describe people׳s evacuation behaviors through a set of differential equations, assuming that they are completely homogeneous to reduce the calculation difficulty. One of the obvious drawbacks for this approach is that the idealized environment settings cannot fully reflect the dynamic characteristics of people׳s evacuation behaviors in the real world, which may cause some deviations in the analysis results. Fortunately, with the improving theory of complex system and computer technology, we are able to show these heterogeneous and dynamic characteristics through agent-based modeling (ABM) techniques (Steven and Volker, 2011). The basic principle of this research method is to establish a series of behavior rules for the agents based on real world experiences and to let them interact freely with each other and the virtual environment. As a result, unlike traditional models, the evacuating behaviors in this model are mainly driven by the dynamic interactions between agents and their environment, not just some pre-arranged rules.
    Related works According to the research of Craig, (1987), those collective patterns of motion that we have seen in evacuation processes, such as clogging or arching, are mainly driven by the \"social force\" and they are closely connected to individualistic and herding behaviors. Similarly, Colin and Tony (2005) have established a crowded evacuation model to investigate the interrelationships between the power of pushing forward and population density (Ansgar and Andreas, 2002). Su et al. (2008) used the simulation model as an evaluation tool to assess the performance of different evacuation plans for a hospital in the event of a terrorist attack. Unlike others, Xiaohui et al. (2012) adopted cellular automata theory as their simulation basis and created a new set of evaluation standards, including \"escape income\" to help agents decide on the most suitable place for evacuation. For convenience, Ganting Xia did not code the model by herself. Instead, she chose to use a well-developed modeling software to set up the simulation research and design a series of comparison experiments to explore the differences between two different types of evacuation behaviors (Tinxia, 2015).