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  • This problem could be resolved making the


    This problem could be resolved, making the assembly easier, using this article with a maximum length of about 1.8m, linked by sleeves. In this case, the building could be divided into stages, with shooting every time you reached 1.80m. On the upper face of the last layer of blocks the plates have been positioned and clamped to the rods by tightening the nuts. For this task we have used a torque wrench which allowed us to give the required prestressing for each rod. The last step was the laying of the head block that gave formal continuity to the sail end, hiding steel plate and nut (Figures 10 and 11).
    Structural testing On the panel act, in the horizontal direction: the component of the prestressing load, the wind load and the friction force between the blocks, in vertical direction: the weight load and the component of prestressing load. Taking into account the geometric data of the structure, in the highest point of sail, a prestressing load of 10,000kg was calculated. We, then, proceeded to test that the maximum stress acting on the individual blocks is always lower than stone resistance. In particular with this pre-compression the stress acting on the individual block is equal to 76.2MPa, well below the strength of the basalt which is higher than 100MPa. Since the sail has a variable height, the calculus procedure was repeated to obtain the value of the prestressing to be applied at the different heights of the structure.
    Potentials and applications When used in building envelopes, over the water resistance, which this article should be ensured by a precision cut made by numerical control machines on the individual blocks, the prestressed masonry has a good performance in relation to the thermal behavior. Indeed, this masonry, thank to high thermal inertia even in the presence of small thickness, coupled to the thermal insulation, provides excellent thermodynamic performance in areas with a Mediterranean climate characterized by high thermal shock (Lombardo and Cicero, 2011a, b).
    Conclusion The design of the new constructive procedure arises from the consideration that, due to the high compressive strength of the stone, you can artificially stress the masonry in order to improve performance. The expectations that have led to the definition of constructive procedure in load-bearing masonry, in dry-assembled and pre-compressed blocks of natural stone through reinforcing steel, have been confirmed by results that led to the construction of a full-scale prototype. This prototype consists of a curved wall panel, sloped by 10°, with a thickness of 20cm and height at the highest point of 3.5m. The panel, fixed at the base and free on the other sides, because of the shape and thinness, it is of considerable visual impact, as its appearance reminds us of the sail of a boat stretched by the wind. Although it loaded to flexure and fixed only to the end, it shows conditions of perfect balance. Besides the outstanding morphologic and aesthetic potentialities which allow for the development in architecture projects, it is interesting to note the significant reduction of the thickness of the wall, in reference to those specified in the regulations. This allows you to build very slim panels as in the case of the wing that has a thickness of 20cm and a height of 3.5m. The remarkable reduction of the thickness of structural elements made of prestressed masonry has as a direct result a considerable saving of building material. Reducing the material used is definitely in favor of the sustainability of the procedure, although, in fact, the natural stone, compared with other very widespread construction materials, has a sustainable behavior.
    Introduction It is interesting to investigate the factors that cause rhythm to appear in design. In fact, rhythm is not just one of the design methodologies used for form generation, it also is the result of cognitive processing and only comprehended through human perception. In this article, concepts of design cognition and perception are discussed from an approach treating design as a way of organizing information through human reasoning. Theoretically speaking, design cognition is a part of the human cognitive process of gathering, recognizing, collecting, memorizing, recalling, and processing design information by designers (Chan, 1990, 2008); whereas perception is another part of the human cognitive process of recognizing and interpreting external information obtained through sensual input by beholders. Explained from the point of view of cognition, rhythm could be seen as an entity, generated by designers through some cognitive processing, and recognized visually as appearing in design products. Rhythm, as created by the processes and revealed in the products of human cognition, is ingrained in human consciousness and therefore should be a key component of design applied universally.